Skip to content

Using QSVT for fixed-point amplitude amplification

This demo will show how to use the QSVT framework for search problems. Specifically, we will implement fixed-point amplitude amplification (FPAA). In FPAA, we do not know in advance the concentration of solutions to the search problem, want to sample a solution with high probability. In contrast, for the original grover search algorithm, too much iterations might 'overshoot'.

The demo is based on the paper Grand unification of quantum algorithms.

Given \(|s\rangle\) the initial state and \(|t\rangle\) the 'good' states, we get an effective block encoding of a 1-dimensional matrix \(A=|t\rangle\langle s|\).

Given that \(a = \langle s|t\rangle\gt0\), we want to amplify \(a\). The signal operator \(U\) here will be \(I\) (and also \(\dagger{U}\)). Now we implement 2 projector-rotations - one in '\(|s\rangle\)' space and one in '\(|t\rangle\)' space, each one around the given state, giving phase to the specific state.

Defining the QSVT circuit for the problem

We start with the general qsvt framework definition. It accepts a unitary which block-encode a matrix together with projector-controlled-phase functions which rotate the state around each of the subspaces where the matrix is encoded.

It applies the qsvt_step multiple times, iterating over the rotation angles provided which encode the polynomial transformation. Notice - The last step is quite tricky and depend on the specific transformation we wish to perform. Here the code is suitable for the FP Amplitude Amplification case. Also - we wrap the auxilliary qubit with \(H\) gates.

from classiq import QArray, QBit, QNum, qfunc
from classiq.qmod import (
    IDENTITY,
    RZ,
    CArray,
    CInt,
    CReal,
    H,
    QCallable,
    X,
    allocate,
    apply_to_all,
    control,
    hadamard_transform,
    if_,
    invert,
    repeat,
)
from classiq.qmod.symbolic import logical_and


@qfunc
def my_qsvt_step(
    phase_seq: CArray[CReal],
    index: CInt,
    proj_ctrl_phase_1: QCallable[CReal, QArray[QBit], QBit],
    proj_ctrl_phase_2: QCallable[CReal, QArray[QBit], QBit],
    u: QCallable[QArray[QBit]],
    qbv_reg: QArray[QBit],
    qbv_aux: QBit,
):
    proj_ctrl_phase_1(phase_seq[2 * index], qbv_reg, qbv_aux)
    u(qbv_reg)
    proj_ctrl_phase_2(phase_seq[2 * index + 1], qbv_reg, qbv_aux)

    if_(
        condition=2 * index + 2 == phase_seq.len,
        then=lambda: IDENTITY(qbv_reg),
        else_=lambda: invert(lambda: u(qbv_reg)),
    )


@qfunc
def my_qsvt(
    phase_seq: CArray[CReal],
    proj_ctrl_phase_1: QCallable[CReal, QArray[QBit], QBit],
    proj_ctrl_phase_2: QCallable[CReal, QArray[QBit], QBit],
    u: QCallable[QArray[QBit]],
    qbv_reg: QArray[QBit],
    qbv_aux: QBit,
) -> None:
    H(qbv_aux)

    repeat(
        count=phase_seq.len / 2,
        iteration=lambda index: my_qsvt_step(
            phase_seq, index, proj_ctrl_phase_1, proj_ctrl_phase_2, u, qbv_reg, qbv_aux
        ),
    )

    H(qbv_aux)

Initial state z-rotation - rotation around \(|s\rangle\)

def initial_state_rot(phase: CReal, state: QArray[QBit], aux: QBit):
    hadamard_transform(state)
    apply_to_all(X, state)
    control(ctrl=state, operand=lambda: X(aux))
    RZ(phase, aux)
    control(ctrl=state, operand=lambda: X(aux))
    apply_to_all(X, state)
    hadamard_transform(state)

Good states z-rotation - rotation around \(|t\rangle\)

def target_state_rot(
    phase: CReal,
    arith_oracle: QCallable[QArray[QBit], QBit],
    state: QArray[QBit],
    aux: QBit,
):
    arith_oracle(state, aux)
    RZ(phase, aux)
    arith_oracle(state, aux)

Defining the arithmetic Oracle

EQUATION = "(a + b) == 3 and (c - a) == 2"

REG_SIZES = {"a": 2, "b": 1, "c": 3}
REG_SIZE = sum(REG_SIZES.values())


@qfunc
def arith_equation(a: QNum, b: QNum, c: QNum, res: QBit):
    res ^= logical_and((a + b) == 3, (c - a) == 2)

Wrapping everything together for the FPAA case

In the FPAA case, the provided unitary is just the Identity matrix! In addition, we provide both projector-controlled phase functions - the initial and target state rotations.

from classiq.qmod import Output


@qfunc
def qsvt_fpaa(
    phase_seq: CArray[CReal],
    arith_oracle: QCallable[QArray[QBit], QBit],
    qbv_reg: QArray[QBit],
    qbv_aux: Output[QBit],
) -> None:
    allocate(1, qbv_aux)

    my_qsvt(
        phase_seq,
        lambda phase, state, aux: initial_state_rot(phase, state, aux),
        lambda phase, state, aux: target_state_rot(phase, arith_oracle, state, aux),
        lambda state: IDENTITY(target=state),
        qbv_reg,
        qbv_aux,
    )

get the phase sequence for the sign function

Now we will use the package pyqsp in order to get the phases of the rotation sequence. Get directly the coef of the sign function, based on the erfc approximation.

import pyqsp

DEGREE = 25
X_BASIS = True

pg = pyqsp.poly.PolySign()
pcoefs, scale = pg.generate(
    degree=DEGREE, delta=10, ensure_bounded=True, return_scale=True
)
[pyqsp.poly.PolySign] degree=25, delta=10
[PolyTaylorSeries] max [0.89999873] is at [1.]: normalizing
[PolyTaylorSeries] average error = 0.0962788793562509 in the domain [-1, 1] using degree 25
import numpy as np
from pyqsp.angle_sequence import Polynomial, QuantumSignalProcessingPhases

poly = Polynomial(pcoefs)
measurement = "x"
ang_seq = QuantumSignalProcessingPhases(
    poly, signal_operator="Wx", method="laurent", measurement=measurement
)
pyqsp.response.PlotQSPResponse(ang_seq, signal_operator="Wx", measurement=measurement)

png

As \(R(a)=-i*e^{i\frac{\pi}{4}Z}W(a)e^{i\frac{\pi}{4}Z}\) and we have odd number of rotations, we get an \(i\) phase to our polynomial, so we get \(Im(P(a))\) instead of the real part. So we will get the result in the \(|1\rangle\) state in the ancilla. However, we can fix it by adding \(\pi/2\) phase to the last or first rotation.

#### change the R(x) to W(x), as the phases are in the W(x) conventions
phases = np.array(ang_seq)
phases = phases - np.pi / 2
phases[0] = phases[0] + np.pi / 4
phases[-1] = phases[-1] + np.pi / 4 + np.pi / 2

phases = (
    -2 * phases
)  # verify conventions. minus is due to exp(-i*phi*z) in qsvt in comparison to qsp

Create the full QSVT Model

from classiq import Constraints, create_model, synthesize


@qfunc
def main(state: Output[QArray[QBit]], aux: Output[QBit]):
    allocate(REG_SIZE, state)

    hadamard_transform(state)
    qsvt_fpaa(
        phase_seq=list(phases),
        arith_oracle=lambda state_reg, aux_reg: arith_equation(
            state_reg[0 : REG_SIZES["a"]],
            state_reg[REG_SIZES["a"] : REG_SIZES["a"] + REG_SIZES["b"]],
            state_reg[REG_SIZES["a"] + REG_SIZES["b"] : REG_SIZE],
            aux_reg,
        ),
        qbv_reg=state,
        qbv_aux=aux,
    )

Synthesis and execution on a simulator

We will use Classiq's synthesis engine to translate the model to a quantum circuit, and execute on Classiq's simulator

from classiq import (
    create_model,
    execute,
    set_execution_preferences,
    show,
    synthesize,
    write_qmod,
)
from classiq.execution import (
    ClassiqBackendPreferences,
    ClassiqSimulatorBackendNames,
    ExecutionPreferences,
)

# convert the functions to a qmod model
constraints = Constraints(max_width=12)
qmod = create_model(main, constraints)

NUM_SHOTS = 1000
# we will want to execute this qmod on a state-vector simulator:
execution_preferences = ExecutionPreferences(
    num_shots=NUM_SHOTS,
    backend_preferences=ClassiqBackendPreferences(
        backend_name=ClassiqSimulatorBackendNames.SIMULATOR
    ),
)
qmod = set_execution_preferences(qmod, execution_preferences)

write_qmod(qmod, "qsvt_fixed_point_amplitude_amplification")
qprog = synthesize(qmod)
show(qprog)
Opening: https://platform.classiq.io/circuit/52d4df69-abbb-4410-847e-ea2e8fcb3cf4?version=0.41.0.dev39%2B79c8fd0855

Execute the circuit:

from classiq.execution import ExecutionDetails

raw_results = execute(qprog).result()
results = raw_results[0].value
def to_int(x):
    return int(x[::-1], 2)


def equation(a, b, c):
    return eval(EQUATION)


measured_good_shots = 0

for keys, counts in results.counts_of_multiple_outputs(["state", "aux"]).items():
    a, b, c, aux = (
        to_int(keys[0][: REG_SIZES["a"]]),
        to_int(keys[0][REG_SIZES["a"] : REG_SIZES["a"] + REG_SIZES["b"]]),
        to_int(keys[0][-REG_SIZES["c"] :]),
        to_int(keys[1]),
    )
    if equation(a, b, c) and (aux == 0):
        print(
            f"a: {a}, b: {b}, c: {c}, aux: {aux}, equation_result: {equation(a, b, c)}, counts={counts}"
        )
        measured_good_shots += counts

print("Measured good shots:", measured_good_shots)
a: 3, b: 0, c: 5, aux: 0, equation_result: True, counts=435
a: 2, b: 1, c: 4, aux: 0, equation_result: True, counts=393
Measured good shots: 828

What do we expect?

We need to subtitue the amplitude of \(|s\rangle\langle t|\) in \(P(x)\):

p_good_shot = poly(np.sqrt(2 / 2**6)) ** 2
print("Expected good shots:", NUM_SHOTS * p_good_shot)
Expected good shots: 832.9873728406709

Indeed, we got the expected result according to the polynomial we created with the QSVT sequence.

import scipy

assert np.isclose(
    measured_good_shots,
    NUM_SHOTS * p_good_shot,
    atol=5 * scipy.stats.binom.std(NUM_SHOTS, p_good_shot),
)

References

[1]: Martyn JM, Rossi ZM, Tan AK, Chuang IL. Grand unification of quantum algorithms. PRX Quantum. 2021 Dec 3;2(4):040203.