# Modulo¶

The Modulo operation (denoted as '%') returns the remainder (called "modulus") of a division. Given two numbers $$a$$ and $$n$$, the result of ($$a$$ % $$n$$) is the remainder of the division of a by n. When n equals $$2^m$$ for an integer $$m$$, the modulo operation's result will be the $$m$$ least significant bits.

For example, The binary representation of the number $$53$$ is $$0b110101$$. The expression ($$53$$ % $$8$$) equals $$0b101 = 5$$, because $$8 = 2^3$$, which means we only account for the $$3$$ least significant bits of $$53$$.

### Implementation¶

Modulo is not implemented in the Classiq platform as a function like other arithmetic operations. Instead, it changes the size of the output register of the previous function.

The modulo operation is supported only for $$n = 2^m$$ for an integer $$m$$, and only for the modulo of a function, like ($$(a + b)$$ % $$4$$). The modulo operation does not currently support modulo of a register directly (e.g. the expression ($$a$$ % $$4$$)).

### Example: Modulo after an adder function¶

{
"logic_flow": [
{
"function": "Arithmetic",
"function_params": {
"expression": "(a + b) % 4 == 3",
"definitions": {
"a": {
"size": 5
},
"b": {
"size": 5
}
}
}
}
]
}

from classiq import ModelDesigner
from classiq.builtin_functions import Arithmetic
from classiq.interface.generator.arith.arithmetic import RegisterUserInput

expression = "(a + b) % 4 == 3"
definitions = dict(a=RegisterUserInput(size=5), b=RegisterUserInput(size=5))
oracle_params = Arithmetic(expression=expression, definitions=definitions)
model_designer = ModelDesigner()
model_designer.Arithmetic(oracle_params)
circuit = model_designer.synthesize()
circuit.show()


This example generates a circuit which adds two 5-qubit arguments: a on qubits 0-4, and b on qubits 5-9. The adder result should have been calculated on a 6 qubits register. However, the modulo operation decides that the output register of the adder will only contain its 2 least significant qubits, and thus the adder result is written to a 2 qubits register, on qubits 10-11.

Output circuit: 